Friday, August 5, 2016

Circulatory system physiology Multiple choice questions(MCQ) with Answers


     1.     Blood volume
a.     Can be measured by a dilution technique using inulin
b.     Is approximately 7% of the body weight of an adult
c.      Relative to the body weight in an infant is less than in an adult
d.     Is decreased by long residence at high altitude
e.     Is increased in pregnancy

     2.     With knowledge of the packed cell volume following can be used to measure the blood volume
a.     Chromium labelled red blood cells
b.     Inulin
c.      Sodium thiocyanate
d.     Evans blue
e.     Iodinated human serum albumin

     3.     Cytotoxic killer cells
a.     Kill by releasing perforins into the target cells
b.     Formation is stimulated by helper T cells
c.      Do not play a role in the development of autoimmunity
d.     Are increased in transplant recipients
e.     Stimulate humoral immunity

     4.     Eosinophilia occurs in
a.     Asthma
b.     Acute bacterial infection
c.      Helminthic infestation
d.     Military TB
e.     Hepatic cirrhosis

     5.     Increased eosinophils are found in
a.     TB
b.     Syphilis
c.      Acute adenitis
d.     Hodgkin’s disease
e.     Lymphosarcoma

     6.     Plasma cells
a.     Are strongly phagocytic
b.     Are normally present in bone marrow
c.      Contains large amount of RNA
d.     Synthesizes proteins
e.     Produces immunoglobulins

     7.     Lymphocytes
                a.     Are found only in the lymph nodes
                b.     Have a shorter life than neutrophils
                c.      Can be transformed into blast cells
                d.     Stimulated to multiply by corticosteroids
                e.     Are particularly sensitive to radiation

     8.     T lymphocytes
                a.     Do not participate in humoral immunity
                b.     Are responsible for the production of lymphokines
                c.      Are transformed into plasma cells
                d.     Are activated by interleukins
                e.     Are significantly depleted in the AIDS complex

     9.     Red blood cells
a.     Haemolyse in hypertonic saline
b.     Disintegrate to release erythropoietin
c.      Are relatively inelastic
d.     Are smaller than normal in foliate deficiency
e.     Are smaller than normal in iron deficiency

a.     Contains ferric irons
b.     May be oxidized to methaemoglobin
c.      Combines with carbon dioxide
d.     Is a stronger acid when oxygenated
e.     Has the same molecular structure as myoglobin

a.     Has a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than for oxygen
b.     Is not filtered at the renal glomeruli
c.      Has the same molecular weight as myoglobin
d.     Is formed in the healthy adult at a rate of about 6g/day
e.     Concentration in red cells rises in macrocytic anaemia

     12. Fetal haemoglobin
a.     Has one iron atom per molecule
b.     Has a different amino acid composition in globin as compared with adult haemoglobin
c.      Has an O2 dissociation curve shifted to the right as compared to adult haemoglobin
d.     Is present in the blood in sickle cell disease
e.     Oxygen uptake is not affected by chances in the pCO2

     13.Diagnostic features of homozygous thalassaemia include
a.     Hypochromia
b.     Reduction in HbA2
c.      Increase in HbF
d.     Normal or high serum iron
e.     Megaloblasts in the bone marrow

     14.Following are frequently seen in sickle cell disease in the adult
a.     Splenomegaly
b.     Jaundice
c.      Dysphagia
d.     Aseptic necrosis of bone
e.     Leg ulcers

     15.The age of 70 years red cell formation is found in the bone marrow of
a.     Femur
b.     Tibia
c.      Vertebrae
d.     Sternum
e.     Ribs

a.     In the fetus takes place in liver and spleen
b.     Is stimulated by hypoxia
c.      Is increased in hypothyroidism
d.     Is decreased in myeloid leukaemia
e.     Stimulated by aldosterone

a.     Cases a rise in the reticulocyte percentage
b.     Level in blood is reduced after bilateral nephrectomy
c.      Is essential for the synthesis of haemoglobin
d.     Is a glycoprotein
e.     Is secreted by cells in the bone marrow

a.     Is secreted by cells of the liver
b.     Secretion is increased in cyanotic congenital heart disease
c.      Level in plasma is increased during residence in high altitude
d.     Increases the number of red cell precursors in bone marrow
e.     Has an immediate action in increasing the circulating red cells

     19.Red cell breakdown products increase
a.     Plasma bilirubin
b.     Porphyrins in the urine
c.      Haemosiderin depositon
d.     Plasma alkaline phosphate
e.     Blood uric acid concentration

a.     Is mainly produced in the liver
b.     In the unconjugated state is moderately soluble in water
c.      Is conjugated with glucoronic acid in the liver
d.     Is converted to urobillinogen in the liver
e.     Is found in the urine in haemolytic anaemia

Answers Soon..

Monday, July 25, 2016

General Pathology Multiple choice questions (MCQ)

1. Regarding cell injury and death
a)       Initially there is a reduction in cell size during cell necrosis
b)      Apoptosis is associated with an inflammatory response
c)       Necrosis results from caspases sequestered in mitochondrial membranes
d)      Cellular swelling and fatty change indicate reversible cell injury
2. In which of the following organs is steatosis NOT seen
a)       Heart
b)      Kidney
c)       Lung
d)      Liver

3. Dystrophic calcification can occur in
a)       Coagulative necrosis
b)      Caseous necrosis
c)       Enzyme necrosis of fat
d)      All the above

4. Cholesterol and its esters are
a)       Metabolised in a loosely regulated system within cells
b)      Are seen as xanthomas within monocytes in tendons
c)       Accumulate in macrophages in the gallbladder known as cholesterosis
d)      Are seen in the media propria of the aorta in atherosclerosis

5. Progressive atrophy of the brain in later adult life is thought to be part due to
a)       Decreased workload
b)      Loss of innervation
c)       Diminished blood supply
d)      Loss of endocrine stimulation

6. Inflammation is
a)       Fundamentally a destructive response acutely
b)      Is characterised by exudation of fluid and migration of neutrophils
c)       Results in scarring thru regeneration of native parenchymal cells
d)      Is activated by Toll like receptors on microbes

7. The most common mechanism for the formation of leaky endothelium in inflammation is
a)       Endothelial retraction
b)      Direct endothelial injury
c)       Leukocyte mediated endothelial injury
d)      Endothelial cell contraction

8,Regarding mediators of inflammation
a)       Histamine is a preformed vasoactive mediator causing arteriole vasoconstriction
b)      Histamine is considered to be the principle mediatory of the immediate transient phase of increased vascular permeability
c)       Nitric oxide has dual actions in inflammation, it relaxes vascular smooth muscle and also promotes the cellular response in the inflammatory response
d)      Platelet activating factor is found unique to platelets

9. In leukocyte migration thru blood vessels in inflammation
a)       Extravasation of the leukocyte occurs in the order of: adhesion to the wall, margination and then rolling of the leucocyte across the endothelial wall.
b)      Selectins are the primary molecule who play roles with neutrophil activation
c)       Integrins are  involved in firm adhesion of the leucocyte to the cell wall
d)      Endothelial cells will take 6-12hrs before they express their selctin ( E selectin ) in inflammation

10. Regarding some inflammatory patterns
a)       When mesothelial cells of the peritoneum, pleural and pericardial linings secrete fluid it is usually of a fibrinous nature
b)      A serous exudation consists primarily of neutrophils, liquefactive necrosis and oedematous fluid
c)       When there are large vascular leaks or an associated procoagulant stimulus you commonly see a suppurative exudate
d)      Ulcers can only occur when tissue necrosis and the resultant inflammation is on or near a surface

11.In chronic inflammation, all are true except
a)       It can be caused by prolonged exposure to toxic agents
b)      It involves mononuclear inflammatory cells
c)       It may contribute to the formation of atherosclerosis
d)      It primarily involves tissue destruction

12. The complement system
a)       Most critical step is the proteolysis of the 3rd component C3 to C3a
b)      Is only involved in innate immunity reactions
c)       Causes decreased vascular permeability, chemotaxsis and opsonization of leukocytes
d)      Is a loosely controlled pathway

13, Regarding wound healing,
a)       The inflammatory response in primary healing is more intense than in secondary healing 
b)      At 1 week , the wound strength is 20% of that of unwounded skin
c)       Wound contraction is due in part to fibroblast contraction
d)      In primary union, collagen fibres appear with granulation tissue

14.The most important cause of delay of healing is
a)       Inadequate blood supply
b)      Infection
c)       Foreign body presence
d)      Poor nutritional state of the patient

15. Regarding the extracellular matrix, which is NOT CORRECT?
a)       Fibronectin in its plasma form is involved in blood clot stabilisation
b)      Laminin is the most abundant glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix
c)       Vit D is required for the hydroxylation of procollagen to collagen
d)      The cross linking of collagen is important in providing tensile strength to a wound

16. The causes of liver steatosis do not include:
a)       Alcohol abuse
b)      Protein malnutrition
c)       XI-antitrypsin deficiency
d)      CCl4

17.Regarding metastatic calcification, which of the following is not a cause?
a)       Renal failure
b)      Paget’s disease
c)       Sarcoidosis
d)      Hypoparathyroidism

18. Depletion of AtP cause all EXCEPT

a)                 efflux of Ca2+
b)      efflux of K
c)       influx of Na+
d)      decrease pH cells

19.The most common causes of fatty liver in the developed world  are
a)       Hypercholesterolaemia and lipid storage diseases
b)      Alcohol abuse and hypercholesterolaemia
c)       NAFLD and alcohol abuse
d)      NAFLD and hypercholesterolaemia

20   .Examples of intracellular accumulations of lipid do NOT include
a)       Niemann-Pick disease type C
b)      Atherosclerosis
c)       Xanthomas
d)      Amyloidosis

21. .Regardig white cell extravasation in acute inflammation which of the following pairs are incorrect
a)       P selectin: neutrophil rolling
b)      ICAM: neutrophil rolling
c)       E selectin neutrophil rolling
d)      CD34: neutrophil rolling
22.Which of the following disorders are examples of chronic leukocyte induced injury
a)       Arthritis
b)      Asthma
c)       Atherosclerosis
d)      Septic  shock

23.Leukotrienes does not mediate the following actions
a)       Vasoconstriction
b)      Chemotaxis
c)       Increased vascular permiability
d)      Vasodilatation

24.Which is NOT true regarding blood clot formation?
a)       The clot contains red cells, fibrin, fibronectin and complement
b)      Within 24 hours of injury, macrophages migrate in along the fibrin scaffold
c)       Neutrophils release proteolytic enzymes that clean out debris and bacteria
d)      Platelet adhesion and aggregation, and formation of the clot leads to inflammation

25.          Which of the following is true about formation of granulation tissue:
a)       Granulation tissue forms around day 6 from proliferation of fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells
b)      Characteristic histological feature is presence of new small blood vessels (angiogenesis) and proliferation of fibroblasts
c)       The new vessels in angiogenesis are tight and restrict passage of plasma proteins.
d)      There is a similar amount of granulation tissue in wounds healing by both primary and secondary intention

26.          The following complications of healing are true, except:
a)       Hypertrophic scars result from accumulation of granulation tissue
b)      Keloid scars grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound and don't regress
c)       Dehiscence, common after abdominal surgery, is due to increased abdominal pressure
d)      Wounds can ulcerate because of inadequate vascularisation
27.          Which is NOT true regarding wound healing?
a)       A scar is composed of fibroblasts, collagen, elastic tissue and other ECM components.    
b)      Wound contraction is important in healing by secondary intention.
c)       The initial matrix of fibrin, fibronectin and type I collagen is ultimately replaced by type III collagen.
d)      The tensile strength after one week in an incisional surgical wound is about 10% of unwounded skin.

28. Which of the following is not an example of peripheral immunologic tolerance?
a)       Anergy
b)      Thymic deletion
c)       Suppression by regulatory T-cells
d)      Antigen sequestration

29. Regarding mitochondrial alterations, which is true?

a)       In cell hypertrophy, there is corresponding increase in mitochondrial size.
b)      Mitochondrial myopathies are associated with increased numbers of morphologically abnormal mitochondria
c)       Oncocytomas are malignant tumours consisting of cells with abundant enlarged mitochondria
d)      Hepatocytes in alcoholic liver disease assume megamitochondria -> extremely large, normally shaped mitochondria (abnormal shapes)

30.Regarding lysosomes which is incorrect?

a)       Primary lysosomes are membrane bound
b)      Contain hydrolytic enzymes
c)       Are synthesised in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
d)      May persist in the cell as residual bodies

Wait for the answers

Popular Posts

Join This site